Mucinous Cystadenoma

What is Mucinous Cystadenoma?

The mucinous cystadenoma is a rounded well-demarcated mass without calcification benign localized cyst filled with mucin. It is surrounded by a wall of fiber which is lined by well-differentiated columnar mucinous epithelium. A rare condition, it occurs in ovary and pancreas (although in the pancreas, it is sporadic). It is asymptomatic and can be seen in women of age between 30 to 40 years.

Pathology

The mucinous cystadenoma or the unilocular cyst is lined with columnar epithelium. Similar to the endocervical epithelium, it is also filled with thick gelatinous mucin measuring up to 5 cm with no mural nodules.

Radiographic Feature 

The mucinous cystadenoma looks larger than serous cystadenoma and bilaterality is rare (2-5%). Its mural calcification is more than serous tumors.

Causes

The exact origin of mucinous cystadenoma is unknown, but doctors believe the following 2 causes behind it:

  • Spontaneous occurrence
  • Genetic changes

Symptoms 

The signs and symptoms may include:

  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Tired and lazy feeling
  • Abnormal menstrual bleeding
  • Weight loss
  • Abdominal swelling and pain due to accumulation of fluid in the belly
  • Bowel movement changes, for example, constipation
  • Due to the collection of fluid increase in the abdominal girth

Diagnosis

The mucinous cystadenoma is first noticed during pelvic examination and then further diagnosed. Laparoscopy & Tissue biopsy may be needed along with some of the following blood tests:

  • Alpha-fetoprotein
  • Estrogen levels
  • CA-125 TEST
  • Inhibin (hormone)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (LDG)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
  • Testosterone level

Complications

The mucinous cystadenoma has infrequent complications which include:

  • Torsion of the ovary
  • Rupture of the cyst within the abdomen

Treatment

If the treatment is small, it does not need any surgical or non-surgical treatment as they are benign. If the tumor is more extensive, it requires a surgical excision and its post-operation care is essential.

Prognosis

The prognosis of mucinous cystadenoma is very good with suitable treatment and when the lesions are small and below the ovary. Such instance has a meager chance of re-growth after its surgical removal.

References

  1. https://radiopaedia.org/articles/ovarian-mucinous-cystadenoma
  2. http://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/mucinous-cystadenoma
  3. http://www.dovemed.com/diseases-conditions/benign-mucinous-cystadenoma-ovary/

1 Comment

  1. I’ve had three surgical removals of large mucinous cystedenomas – at age 52, 53 and 73. Are these likely to keep reoccurring?

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